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Attig, J.W., 1985. Pleistocene geology of Vilas County, Wisconsin. Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, Information Circular #50, 32 pp.

Bockheim, J.G. and Jordan, J., 2004. Soils of the Sylvania Wilderness-Recreation area, western Upper Peninsula, Michigan, Technical Report NC-237, USDA, Forest Serice, North Central Research Station, 18 pp.

Brugam, R.B., Giorgi, M., Sesvold, C., Johnson, S.M., and Almos, R., 1997. Holocene vegetation history in the Sylvania Wilderness area of the western Upper Peninsula of Michigan, American Midland Naturalist, 137:62-71.

Cuttler, M.R., 1971. A study of litigation related to management of Forest Service administered lands and its effect on policy decisions. Part I: The Grandt v. Hardin case. M.S. Thesis, Michigan State University, 333 pp.

Davis, M.B., Calcote, R.R., Sugita, S., and Takahara, H., 1998. Patchy invasion and the origin of a hemlock-hardwoods forest mosaic, Ecology, 79:2641-2659.

Davis, M.B., Sugita, S., Calcote, R.R., Parshall, T.E., and Ferrari, J.B., 1995. 3000 years of abundant hemlock in upper Michigan, in: Hemlock Ecology and Management, Mroz, G. and Martin, J., eds., Department of Forestry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, p. 19-27.

Frelich, L.E., and Graumlich, L.J., 1994. Age-class distribution and spatial patterns in an old-growth hemlock-hardwood forest, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 24:1939-1947.

Frelich, L.E., and Lorimer, C.G., 1985. Current and predicted long-term effects of deer browsing in hemlock forests in Michigan, USA, Biological Conservation, 34:99-120.

Harman, J.R., 1984. Environmental significance of a Great Lakes location, in: Michigan - a geography, L.M. Sommers, Westview Press, Boulder, 71-92.

Lauritsen, M., and Lauritsen, N.J., 2006. Sylvania - Where man is a visitor, Jensmarie Publishing, Rhinelander, Wisconsin, 101 pp.

Manies, K.L., and Mladenoff, D.J., 2000. Testing methods to produce landscape-scale presettlement vegetation maps from the U.S. public land survey records, Landscape Ecology, 15:741-754.

Mladenoff, D.J., and Stearns, F., 1993. Eastern hemlock regeneration and deer browsing in the northern Great Lakes region: A re-examination and model simulation, Conservation Biology, 7:889-900.

Parshall, T., 1995. Canopy mortality and stand-scale change in a northern hemlock-hardwood forest, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 25:1466-1478.

Peacock, B., 1986. Sylvania, Park Press Inc., Waite Park, Minnesota, 44 pp.

Peterson, W.L., 1986. Late Wisconsinan glacial history of northeastern Wisconsin and western Upper Michigan. U.S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 1652, 14 pp.

Rasmussen, C.O., 1997. The enduring Sylvania Wilderness, M.A. thesis, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, 66p.

Salk, T.T., Frelich, L.E., Sugita, S., Calcote, R., Ferrari, J.B., and Montgommery, R.A., 2011. Poor recruitment is changing the structure and species composition of an old-growth hemlock-hardwood forest, Forest Ecology and Management, 261:1998-2006.

Waller, D.M., and Alverson, W.S., 1997. The white-tailed deer: a keystone herbivore, Wildlife Society Bulletin, 25:217-226.

Waller, D.M., Johnson, S., Collins, R., and Williams, E., 2009. Threats posed by ungulate herbivory to forest structure and plant diversity in the Upper Great Lakes Region and a review of methods to assess those threats, Technical Report prepared for the National Parks Service, in press.


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